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Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, General Research and Reference Division

Élisée Reclus, The Earth and Its Inhabitants, Africa, vol. III (New York: D. Appleton, 1890–1893)

Elmina, Gold Coast

Elmina's fort was built by the Portuguese in 1482. It was the first permanent building erected by the Europeans in sub-Saharan Africa. It was also the first slave depot. The fort was heavily guarded and armed; nevertheless, the Dutch overtook it in 1642. They were later displaced by the English. Tens of thousands of men and women were deported from Elmina.

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