Susan D. Greenbaum, Afro-Cubans in Ybor City: A Centennial History (Tampa: [s.n.], 1986)
Maria de Jesus Vierna, c. 1895
Maria de Jesus Vierna of Ybor City, Florida, was active in helping the struggle for Cuban independence. After Cuba gained its freedom from Spain in 1898, numerous Afro-Cubans left Florida, where they had settled a few years before, to return to their homeland. As they were confronted with unemployment and racism from white Cubans and the American administration and troops, many returned to the United States.