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Haitian Immigration
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"Papa Doc"

Francois Duvalier, or "Papa Doc," as he was popularly referred to, was the primary impetus for the exodus of Haitians. The reason for their flight was simple: Duvalier's extreme political repression. The paramilitary force he had created, the Volontaires de la Sécurité Nationale-commonly known as Tonton Macoutes-terrorized, tortured, and murdered those who seemed in any way to oppose Papa Doc's rule. These threats were often aimed at social aid or community organizations with no explicit political affiliations.

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