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The Waves of Migration
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Robert Grossman / [IC49]

Structural Adjustment Programs

The Structural Adjustment Programs of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, with their insistence on privatization, have had devastating effects on education, health, and businesses in Africa. Added to the 50 percent devaluation in francophone Africa in 1994, these policies have contributed to the emigration flow. The number of African immigrants to the United States increased substantially in the 1980s and 1990s.

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