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The Western Migration
Web Links


A portal for the African-American experience in Arizona.

St. Louis Experience

From bondage and migration to civil rights activism, this essay outlines the themes, trends, ideas, and developments over time (1830's-1970's) that have had an impact on the way the City looks today.

End of the Oregon Trail

This site provides biographies of African-American pioneers of Oregon and other parts of the Northwest along with links to pages of information about slavery and exclusion laws, and significant dates in Oregon's African-American history.

In Nebraska

This section of a larger site provides a thorough account of Nebraska's African-American migration along with photos and educator resources.

Racial Tensions in 1920's Nebraska

The story features articles from newspapers including African-American newspaper, the Cleveland Advocate reporting on the Western migration and racial tensions in 1920's Nebraska.

African Americans in the West

This section of WestWeb provides information about African-Americans in the west. Under Texts you will find examples of primary texts, such as the letters of WWII African-American GIs. Under Resources, you will find biographies of Western African-Americans as well as other resources, such as bibliographies and teaching materials. Under Links to Other Sites, you will find a collection of links to sites dealing with various issues in African-American history, such as overland migration, the Black Panthers, and cowboy history. Finally, under Images, you will find both general collections which include some images of Western African-American history and direct links to pictures available online.

History of Southwest Arkansas

Golden Prospects and Fraternal Amenities: Mifflin W. Gibbs's Arkansas Years by Tom W. Dillard. This lengthy article/excerpt from Dillard's thesis recounts Gibbs's life, primarily after settling in Arkansas. He was born in Philadelphia but migrated to California, Canada, and Ohio.


A National Park Service site bout the history of African Americans in California.

Miners at Spanish Flat

Gold Rush! California's Untold Stories digital exhibit. This photo bio gives information on the African-American migration during the California Gold rush including population statistics.

African Americans and the Old West

This Long Island University site includes extensive research on the history of African Americans in various parts of the west and the traditions they created. Text, images, links and resource references are displayed.

Nicodemus, Kansas

The web page features Nicodemus as a historical site and "the only remaining western community established by African Americans after the Civil War. Having an important role in American History, the town symbolizes the pioneering spirit of these ex-slaves who fled the war-torn South in search of "real" freedom and a chance to restart their lives."

African American Mosaic: Nicodemus

Library and Congress Photos and Prints Division- a series of images related to the founding of Nicodemus, Kansas.

Black Towns

Brief article on the significance of African-American towns founded during the Western Migration

Friends of Allensworth

Friends of Allensworth, a volunteer association dedicated to increasing the awareness of the only California town to be founded, financed, and governed by African Americans. Historical contributions are featured along with the present state of Allensworth.

Oklahoma Black Towns

This is a web page listing Oklahoma towns founded by African Americans with brief bios of their founders.

America's Racial Frontier

Informative site with many essays and pictures.


"Utah's Early African American Farmers": a short article giving insight into the African-American experience in Utah in the nineteenth century. Published in History Blazer, May 1996.

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