Browse By Migrations Geography Timeline Source Materials Education Materials Search
The Western Migration
The Way West: Migration and the African-American Search for Freedom and Opportunity in the Western United States
Quintard Taylor, University of Washington
"The Early African Heritage in California"
from Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California
Jack D. Forbes and Lawrence B. DeGraaf, Kevin Mulroy and Quintard Taylor, eds.
University of Washington Press (Seattle, 2001)
Chapter 2 - "Blacks Join the Gold Rush"
from Blacks in Gold Rush California
Rudolph M. Lapp
Yale University Press (New Haven, 1977)
Chapter IV
Shadow and Light: An Autobiography with Reminiscences of the Last and Present Century
Mifflin Wistar Gibbs
M.W. Gibbs (Washington D.C., 1902)
Chapter 7 - "Ben Kinchlow: A Trail Driver on the Chisholm Trail"
from Black Cowboys of Texas
Texas A&M University Press (College Station, 2000)
Part 2 - Testimonies in Indiana
from Report and Testimony of the Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States: In Three Parts
Government Printing Office (Washington D.C.)
The New Man: Twenty-nine Years a Slave, Twenty-nine Years a Free Man
Henry Clay Bruce
P. Anstadt (York, PA, 1895)
Chapter Two - "Law, Politics and Leavenworth: A Beginning"
from A Black Odyssey: John Lewis Waller and the Promise of American Life, 1878-1900
Randall Bennett Woods
Regents Press of Kansas (Lawrence, 1981)
Chapter 12 - "Migration to Kansas Preceding the Exodus"
from Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction
Nell Irvin Painter
Knopf (New York, 1977)
Interview with Bill Sims
from Kansas Narratives, Volume 6
Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938
Prepared by the Federal Writers' Project (Washington D.C.)
Chapter 6 - "The Eldorado of their Foolish Dreams"
from In Search of Canaan: Black Migration to Kansas, 1879-80
Robert G. Athearn
Regents Press of Kansas (Lawrence, 1978)
United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States. “Testimony of Benjamin Singleton,” Report and...
Govt. Printing Off. (Washington, 1880)
United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee to Investigate the Causes of the Removal of the Negroes from the Southern States to the Northern States. “Testimony of J.W. Wheeler,” Report and testi...
Govt. Printing Off. (Washington, 1880)
Chapter 1 - "Nicodemus, Kansas"
from Black Towns and Profit: Promotion and Development in the Trans-Appalachian West, 1877-1915
Kenneth Marvin Hamilton
University of Illinois Press (Urbana, 1991)
The Negro Exodus from the Gulf States
Douglass, Frederick, 1817?-1895
Frank Leslie's Publishing House (New York , January 1880 )
The Exodus of 1879
from The Journal of Negro History, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 1936)
John G. Van Dusen
Benjamin, or 'Pap,' Singleton and His Followers
from The Journal of Negro History, vol 33. no. 1 (January 1948)
Roy Garvin
Negro Exodus: Report of Col. Frank H. Fletcher, Agent Appointed by the St. Louis Commission to Visit Kansas for the Purpose of Obtaining Information in Regard to Colored Emigration
Frank H. Fletcher
Black Dreams and 'Free' Homes: The Oklahoma Territory, 1891-1894
from Phylon
Lonnie E. Underhil and Daniel F. Littlefield Jr.
Boley, A Negro Town in the West, The Booker T. Washington Papers, vol. 9
University of Illinois Press (Chicago, 1980)
The Crisis, vol. 6, no. 5, (September 1913)
The Rise of Black Phoenix: African-American Migration, Settlement and Community Development in Maricopa County, Arizona 1868-1930
from The Journal of Negro History Vol. 85, no. 3 (Summer 2000)
Matthew C. Whitaker
Negro Homesteading in Nebraska: Introduction
from Sod House Memories, vol. IV
NE: Service Press (Henderson, 1991)
American Daughters: Black Women in the West
from Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Spring 1988)
Riley, Glenda
The Evolution of Black Music in Los Angeles, 1890-1955
from Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California
Bette Yarbrough Cox and de Graaf, Lawrence B.; Mulroy, Kevin; Taylor, Quintard, eds.
University of Washington Press (Seattle, 2001)
Chapter 9 - "Wartime Tensions and the Struggle for Housing"
from Black San Francisco: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954
Albert S. Broussard
University Press of Kansas (Lawrence, 1993)
Chapter 16 - "After the Fire"
from Fire This Time; The Watts Uprising and the 1960's
Gerald Home
University of Virginia Press (Charlettesville, 1995)
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