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Colonization and Emigration

Anderson, Eric. "Black Émigrés: The Emergence of Nineteenth-century United States Black Nationalism in Response to Haitian Emigration, 1816-1840." 49th Parallel: An Interdisciplinary Journal of North American Studies 1 (Winter 1999)

Bell, Howard Holman, ed. Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions, 1830-1864. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

Blackett, R. J. M.  Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement, 1830-1860. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1989.

Blyden, Nemata. "Edward Jones: An African American in Sierra Leone." In Moving On: Black Loyalists in the Afro-Atlantic World, ed. John W. Pulis. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1999.

Campbell, James T.  Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Carey, Mathew.  Letters on the Colonization Society. Philadelphia: Stereotyped by L. Johnson, 1834.

Delany, Martin Robison. The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States. Philadelphia, 1852. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1968.

Dixon, Chris.  African America and Haiti: Emigration and Black Nationalism in the Nineteenth Century. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2000.

Dorsey, Bruce Allen. "A Gendered History of African Colonization in the Antebellum United States." Journal of Social History 34:1 (2000): 77-103.

Dunn, Elwood D., and Svend E. Holsoe, eds. Historical Dictionary of Liberia. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1985.

Freeman, Frederick. Yaradee; A plea for Africa, in familiar conversations on the subject of slavery and colonization. Philadelphia: J. Whetham, 1836. Reprint, New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969.

Fyfe, Christopher. A History of Sierra Leone. London: Oxford University Press, 1962.

________. "The Sierra Leone Press in the Nineteenth Century." Sierra Leone Studies n.s. 8 (June 1957): 226-36.

Garrison, William Lloyd. Thoughts on African Colonization. Boston, 1832. Reprint, New York: Arno Press, 1968.

Harris, Joseph, ed. Global Dimensions of the African Diaspora. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1982.

Harris, Sheldon. Paul Cuffee, Black America, and the African Return. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1972.

Hawkins, Hugh. "Edward Jones, Marginal Man." In Black Apostles at Home and Abroad: Afro-Americans and the Christian Mission from the Revolution to Reconstruction, ed. David W. Willis and Richard Newman. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1982.

Information for the Free People of Colour Who Are Inclined to Emigrate to Hayti. New York: Mahlon Day, 1824.

Jacobs, Sylvia, ed. The African Nexus: Black American Perspectives on the European Partitioning of Africa, 1880-1920. Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 1981.

________. Black Americans and the Missionary Movement in Africa. Westport, Conn. Greenwood Press, 1982.

Jenkins, David. Black Zion: The Return of Afro-Americans and West Indians to Africa. London: Wildwood House, 1975.

Johnson, Charles S.  Bitter Canaan: The Story of the Negro Republic. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Books, 1987.

Kocher, Kurt Lee.  "A Duty to America and Africa: A History of the Independent African Colonization Movement in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania History 51: 2 (1984): 118-53.

Litwack, Leon F.  North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Magubane, Bernard.  The Ties That Bind: African American Consciousness of Africa. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1987.

Markwei, Matei.  "The Rev. Daniel Coker of Sierra Leone." The Sierra Leone Bulletin of Religion 7: 2 (December 1965): 41-48.

McDaniel, Antonio.  Swing Low, Sweet Chariot: The Mortality Cost of Colonizing Liberia in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1995.

Mehlinger, Louis R. "The Attitude of the Free Negro Toward African Colonization" Not a Slave! Free People of Color in Antebellum America, 1790-1860, ed. In Lacy Shaw New York: American Heritage Custom Publishing Group, 1995.

Miller, Floyd.  The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787-1863. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.

Miller, Randall, ed.  Letters of a Slave Family. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1978.

Moses, Wilson J.  Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1992.

________, ed.  Liberian Dreams: Back-to-Africa Narratives from the 1850s. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1998.

Nash, Gary B.  Forging Freedom: The Formation of Philadelphia's Black Community, 1720-1840. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Redkey, Edwin. Black Exodus, Black Nationalism and Back-to-Africa Movements, 1890-1910. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1969.

Rigsby, Gregory.  Alexander Crummell: Pioneer in Nineteenth-century Pan-African Thought. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.

Saillant, John, ed. "Circular Addressed to the Colored Brethren and Friends in America: An Unpublished Essay by Lott Cary, Sent from Liberia to Virginia, 1827." The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 104: 4 (1996): 481-504.

Seifman, Elif. "The United Colonization Societies of New York and Pennsylvania and the Establishment of the African Colony of Bassa Cove." Pennsylvania History 35: 1 (1968): 23-44.

Shick, Tom. Behold the Promised Land: A History of Afro-American Settler Society in Nineteenth-century Liberia. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1980.

Smith, James Wesley.  Sojourners in Search of Freedom: The Settlement of Liberia by Black Americans. Lanham, Md: University Press of America, 1987.

Staudenraus, P. J.   The African Colonization Movement, 1816-1865. New York: Columbia University Press, 1961.

Uche, Kalu O.  "Ebony Kinship: Americo-Liberians, Sierra Leone Creoles and the Indigenous African Populations, 1820-1900: A Comparative Analysis." Ph.D. diss., Howard University, July 1974.

West, Richard.  Back to Africa: A History of Sierra Leone and Liberia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970.

Wiley, Bell, ed. Slaves No More: Letters from Liberia 1833-1869. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1980.

Williams, Samuel. Four Years in Liberia: A Sketch of the Life of Rev. Samuel Williams. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

Williams, Walter LBlack Americans and the Evangelization of Africa, 1877-1900. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1982.

Willis, David W, and Richard Newman, eds. Black Apostles at Home and Abroad: Afro-Americans and the Christian Mission from the Revolution to Reconstruction. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1982.

Winch, Julie.  Philadelphia's Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation, and the Struggle for Autonomy, 1787-1848. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988.

Woodson, Carter G.  A Century of Negro Migration. New York: Russell & Russell, 1969.

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