Browse By Migrations Geography Timeline Source Materials Education Materials Search
The Western Migration

Adler, Patricia Rae. "Watts: From Suburb to Black Ghetto." PhD. dissertation, University of Southern California, 1977.

Anderson, Robert. From Slavery to Affluence; Memoirs of Robert Anderson, Ex-Slave. Steamboat Springs, Colorado: The Steamboat Pilot, Printer, 1967.

Armitage, Susan H., and Wilbert, Deborah Gallacci, "Black Women in the Pacific Northwest: A Survey and Research Prospectus," in Blair, Karen, ed. Women in Pacific Northwest History: An Anthology. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.

Athearn, Robert. In Search of Canaan: Black Migration to Kansas, 1879-80. Lawrence: The Regents Press of Kansas, 1978.

Bandelier, F. ed., The Journey of Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca. New York: A.S. Barnes & Company, 1905.

Barr, Alwyn. "Black Migration into in Southwestern Cities, 1865-1900," in Gallagher, Garry W. ed. Essays on Southern History Written in Honor of Barnes F. Lathrop. Austin: The General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin, 1980.

___________. Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971. Austin: Jenkins Publishing Company, 1973.

Beeth, Howard and Wintz, Cary D., eds., Black Dixie: Afro-Texas History and Culture in Houston. College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 1992.

Bish, James D. "The Black Experience in Selected Nebraska Counties, 1854-1920" M.A. Thesis, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1989.

Bittle, William E. and Geis, Gilbert. The Longest Way Home: Chief Alfred C. Sam's Back-to-Africa Movement. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1964.

Bontemps, Arna. God Sends Sunday. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1931.

______________ and Conroy, Jack. Anyplace But Here. New York: Hill and Wang, 1966.

Bringhurst, Newell G. Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People Within Mormonism. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Broussard, Albert. Black San Franciso: The Struggle for Racial Equality in the West, 1900-1954. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1993.

_________________. "Slavery in California Revisited: The Fate of A Kentucky Slave in Gold Rush California," The Pacific Historian 29:1 (Spring 1985):17-21.

Bullock, Paul. Watts, The Aftermath: An Inside View of the Ghetto by the People of Watts, California. New York: Grove Press, 1969.

Bunch, Lonnie III. "A Past Not Necessarily Prologue: The African American in Los Angeles," in Klein, Norman M. and Schiesl, Martin J. eds., 20th Century Los Angeles: Power, Promotion, and Social Conflict. Claremont, California: Regina Books, 1990.

_________________. Black Angelenos: The Afro-American in Los Angeles, 1850-1950. Los Angeles: California Afro-American Museum, 1988.

Castel, Albert. "Civil War Kansas and the Negro," Journal of Negro History 51:2 (April 1966): 125-138.

Chaudhuri, Nupur. "'We All Seem Like Brothers and Sisters': The African-American Community in Manhattan, Kansas, 1865-1940," Kansas History 14:4 (Winter 1991):270-288.

Cohen, Jerry and Murphy, William S. Burn, Baby, Burn! The Los Angeles Race Riot, August 1965. New York: E.P. Dutton & Company, 1966.

Colbert, Robert E. "The Attitude of Older Negro Residents Toward Recent Negro Migrants in the Pacific Northwest," Journal of Negro Education 15:4 (Fall 1946):695-703.

Coleman, Ronald. "Blacks in Utah History: An Unknown Legacy," in Papanikolas, Helen Z. ed., The Peoples of Utah. Salt Lake City: Utah Historical Society, 1976.

Collins, Keith E. Black Los Angeles: The Maturing of the Ghetto, 1940-1950. Saratoga, CA.: Century Twenty One Publishing, 1980.

Coray, Michael. "African-Americans in Nevada," Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 34:4 (Winter 1992):239-257.

Cordley, Richard. A History of Lawrence, Kansas From the First Settlement to the Close of the Rebellion. Lawrence: E.F. Caldwell, 1895.

________________. Pioneer Days in Kansas. New York: Pilgrim Press, 1903.

Coughtry, Jamie and King, R.T. eds. Lubertha Johnson: Civil Rights Efforts in Las Vegas: 1940s-1960s. Reno: University of Nevada Oral History Program, 1988.

_______________. Woodrow Wilson: Race, Community and Politics in Las Vegas, 1940s-1980s. Reno: University of Nevada Oral History Program, 1990.

Cox, Bette Yarbrough. Central Avenue--Its Rise and Fall (1890-c.1955). Los Angeles: Beem Publications, 1996.

Cox, Thomas C. Blacks in Topeka: A Social History. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.

Crockett, Norman L. The Black Towns. Lawrence: The Regents Press of Kansas, 1979.

Crouchett, Lawrence P., Bunch, Lonnie G. III, and Winnacker, Martha Kendall Visions Toward Tomorrow: The History of the East Bay Afro-American Community, 1852-1977. Oakland: Northern California Center for Afro-American History and Life, 1989.

Daniels, Douglas Henry. Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

Dann, Martin E. "From Sodom to the Promised Land: E.P. McCabe and the Movement for Oklahoma Colonization," Kansas Historical Quarterly 40:3 (Autumn 1974)370-378.

Day, Ava Speece. "The Ava Speese Day Story," in Frances Jacobs Alberts, ed., Sod House Memories. Hastings, Nebraska: Sod House Society, 1972.

De Barros, Paul. Jackson Street After Hours: The Roots of Jazz in Seattle. Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1993.

de Graaf, Lawrence B. "Race, Sex, and Region: Black Women in the American West, 1850-1920." Pacific Historical Review 49:1 (February 1980):285-314.

____________________. "Recognition, Racism, and Reflections on the Writing of Western Black History." Pacific Historical Review 44:1 (February 1975):22-51.

____________________. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African Americans in the West," Journal of the West 35:1(January 1996):24-33.

____________________. "The City of Black Angels: The Emergence of the Los Angeles Ghetto, 1890-1930," Pacific Historical Review 39:3 (August 1970):323-352.

____________________, Mulroy, Kevin and Taylor, Quintard, eds., Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

De La Teja, Jesus. San Antonio de Bexar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1995.

De Leon, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes Toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821-1900. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983.

Dickson, Lynda Faye. "The Early Club Movement Among Black Women in Denver: 1890-1925" PhD. Thesis, University of Colorado, 1982.

Dillon, Merton L. Benjamin Lundy and the Struggle for Negro Freedom. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1966.

Dobak, William A. "Civil War on the Kansas-Missouri Border: The Narrative of Former Slave Andrew Williams," Kansas History 6:4(Winter 1983):237-242.

Doran, Michael F. "Population Statistics of Nineteenth Century Indian Territory," Chronicles of Oklahoma 53:4 (Winter 1975): 501-02.

Edwards, Malcolm. "The War of Complexional Distinction: Blacks in Gold Rush California and British Columbia," California Historical Quarterly 56:1 (Spring 1977):34-45.

Ellsworth, Scott. Death in a Promised Land: The Tulsa Race Riot of 1921. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.

Elman, Richard M. Ill-At-Ease in Compton. New York: Pantheon Books, 1967.

Entz, Gary R. "Image and Reality on the Kansas Prairie: "Pap" Singleton's Cherokee County Colony," Kansas History 19:2(Summer 1996):124-139.

Fisher, H.D. The Gun and the Gospel: Early Kansas and Chaplain Fisher. Chicago: Kenwood Press, 1896.

Fisher, James A. "A History of the Political and Social Development of the Black Community in California, 1850-1950" (PhD. Dissertation, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1971.

_______________. "The Political Development of the Black Community in California, 1850-1950." California Historical Quarterly 50:3 (September 1971):256-266.

Fitzgerald, Roosevelt. "The Demographic Impact of Basic Magnesium Corporation on Southern Nevada" Nevada Public Affairs Review, Ethnicity and Race in Nevada 2(1987):29-35.

Flamming, Douglas. "African Americans and the Politics of Race in Progressive-Era Los Angeles," in Deverall, William and Sitton, Tom eds., California Progressivism Revisited. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Foner, Philip S. and Walker, Geroge E., eds., Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1840-1865. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

Fontenot, Chester J. Jr., "Oscar Micheaux, Black Novelist and Film Maker," in Faulkner, Virginia with Luebke, Frederick C. eds., Vision and Refuge: Essays on the Literature of the Great Plains. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1982.

Forbes, Jack. "Black Pioneers: The Spanish-Speaking Afro-Americans of the Southwest." Phylon 27:3 (Fall 1966):233-246.

Foreman, Grant. Indian Removal: The Emigration of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indians. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972.

Franklin, Jimmie Lewis. Journey Toward Hope: A History of Blacks in Oklahoma. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982.

Franklin, Joseph. All Through the Night: The History of Spokane Black Americans. Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, 1989.

Frink, Margaret. Adventures of a Party of California Gold Seekers. Oakland: Privately Printed, 1897.

Garcia, Mikel Hogan. "Adaptation Strategies of the Los Angeles Black Community, 1883-1919," PhD. Dissertation, University of California, Irvine, 1985.

Gatewood, Willard B. "Kate D. Chapman Reports on `The Yankton Colored People,' 1889," South Dakota History 7:1 (Winter 1976):28-35.

George, Lynell. No Crystal Stair: African Americans in the City of Angels. London: Verso Press, 1992.

Gibbs, Mifflin W. Shadow and Light: An Autobiography. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1968.

Gorham, Thelma Thurston "Negroes and Japanese Evacuees," Crisis 52:11 (November 1945):314-316, 330-331.

Greenbaum, Susan G. The Afro-American Community in Kansas City, Kansas: A History. Kansas City, Kansas: City of Kansas City, 1982.

Grinde, Donald and Taylor, Quintard. "Red vs Black: Conflict and Accommodation in the Post Civil War Indian Territory, 1865-1907," American Indian Quarterly 8:3 (Summer 1984):211-229.

Guenther, Todd. "At Home on the Range: Black Settlement in Rural Wyoming, 1850-1950," M.A. Thesis, University of Wyoming, 1988.

______________. "`Y'all Call Me Nigger Jim Now, But Someday You'll Call Me Mr. James Edwards': Black Success on the Plains of the Equality State," Annals of Wyoming 61:2 (Fall 1989):20-40.

Gutierrez, Ramon A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.

Hallenbeck, Cleve, ed. The Journey of Fray Marcos de Niza Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1987.

Halliburton, Janet. "Black Slavery in the Creek Nation." Chronicles of Oklahoma 56:3 (Fall 1978): 298-314.

Halliburton, R. Jr. Red Over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 1977.

Hamilton, Kenneth W. Black Towns and Profit: Promotion and Development in the Trans-Appalachian West, 1877-1915. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991.

Hammond, George P. and Rey, Agapito, eds. Narratives of the Coronado Expedition, 1540-1542 Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1940.

Hansen, Moya. "Entitled to Full and Equal Enjoyment: Leisure and Entertainment in the Denver Black Community, 1900 to 1930," University of Colorado at Denver Historical Studies Journal 10:1 (Spring 1993):57-71.

Harris, LeRoy E. "The Other Side of the Freeway: A Study of Settlement Patterns of Negroes and Mexican Americans in San Diego, California." Doctor of Arts dissertation, Carnegie-Mellon University, 1974.

Harris, Richard E. The First Hundred Years: A History of Arizona Blacks. Apache Junction, Arizona: Relmo Publishers, 1983.

Harris, William H. "Federal Intervention in Union Discrimination: FEPC and West Coast Shipyards During World War II," Labor History 22:3 (Summer 1981):325-347.

Hayden, Dolores. "Biddy Mason's Los Angeles, 1851-1891," California History 68:3 (Fall 1989):86-99.

Haywood, Robert. "No Less a Man: Blacks in Cow Town Dodge City, 1876-1886." Western Historical Quarterly 19:2 (May 1988):161-182.

Hebert, Janis. "Oscar Micheaux: A Black Pioneer," South Dakota Review 11:4 (Winter 1973-74):62-69.

Hickey, Joseph V. "`Pap' Singleton's Dunlap Colony: Relief Agencies and the Failure of a Black Settlement in Eastern Kansas," Great Plains Quarterly 11:1 (Winter 1991):23-36.

Horne, Gerald. Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1995.

Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea: An Autobiography of Langston Hughes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1940.

Ibrahim, Shirley Diane. "Estevan, the Moor of New Mexico: An Experiment in Point of View." EdD. thesis, East Texas State University, 1978.

Issel, William and Cherny, Robert W. San Francisco, 1865-1932: Politics, Power and Urban Development. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Jackson, Susan. "Slavery in Houston: The 1850s," Houston Review 2:2 (1980):66-82.

Jefferson, Robert Franklin. "Making the Men of the 93rd: African American Servicemen in the Years of the Great Depression and the Second World War, 1935-1947." PhD dissertation, University of Michigan, 1995.

Johannsen, Robert W. Frontier Politics and the Sectional Conflict: the Pacific Northwest on the Eve of the Civil War. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1955.

Johnson, David Alan. Founding the Far West: California, Oregon, and Nevada, 1840-1890. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.

Johnson, Frederick P. "Agricultural Negro Colony in Eastern Colorado," Western Farm Life Journal (May 11, 1915):5, 12.

Johnson, Marilyn. The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Jones, Oakah L. Jr. Los Paisanos: Spanish Settlers on the Northern Frontier of New Spain Norman: University of New Mexico Press, 1979.

Josephy, Alvin M., Jr. The Civil War in the American West. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991.

Journal of the Senate Proceedings of the Legislative Assembly of Oregon, 1870. Salem: T. Patterson, State Printer, 1870.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West. Garden City, New York: Doubleday and Company, 1971 [reprinted, Seattle: Open Hand Publishing Inc. 1987].

Kaufman, Perry Bruce. "The Best City of Them All: A History of Las Vegas, 1930-1960." PhD. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1974.

Kesselman, Amy. Fleeting Opportunities: Women Shipyard Workers in Portland and Vancouver During World War II and Reconversion. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1990.

Kilian, Crawford Go Do Some Great Thing: The Black Pioneers of British Columbia. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, Publishers, 1978.

King, William M. "Black Children, White Law: Black Efforts to Secure Public Education in Central City, Colorado, 1864-1869," Essays and Monographs in Colorado History (1984):56-79.

Klassen, Teresa C. and Johnson, Owen V. "Sharpening of the Blade: Black Consciousness in Kansas, 1892-97," Journalism Quarterly 63:2 (Summer 1986):298-304.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Vintage Books, 1975.

Kopkind, Andrew. "Watts--Waiting for D-Day." The New Republic 154:24 (June 11, 1966):15-17.

Kremer, Gary R. James Milton Turner and the Promise of America: The Public Life of a Post-Civil War Black Leader. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1991.

Lack, Paul. The Texas Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History, 1835-1836. College Station: Texas A & M Press, 1992.

__________. "Urban Slavery in the Southwest," Red River Valley Historical Review 4:2 (Spring 1981):1-20.

Lamar, Howard Roberts. The Far Southwest 1846-1912: A Territorial History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1966.

Lang, William. "Tempest on Clore Street: Race and Politics in Helena Montana, 1906," Scratchgravel Hills 3 (Summer 1980):9-14.

_____________. "The Nearly Forgotten Blacks on the Last Chance Gulch, 1900-1912." Pacific Northwest Quarterly 70:2 (April 1979):50-51.

Lapp, Rudolph. Afro Americans in California. San Francisco: Boyd & Fraser Publishing Company, 1986.

_____________. Blacks in Gold Rush California. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.

Ledbetter, Barbara A. Neal. Fort Belknap Frontier Saga: Indians, Negroes and Anglo-Americans on the Texas Frontier. Burnet, Texas: Eakin Press, 1982.

Lemke-Santangelo, Gretchen. Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Levene, Carol. "The Negro in San Francisco," Common Ground 9:1 (Spring 1949):10-17.

Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.

Littlefield, Daniel F. Jr. Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979.

_________________________. The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to American Citizenship. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1978.

_________________________. The Chickasaw Freedmen: A People Without a Country. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1980.

_________________________ and Underhill, Lonnie E. "Black Dreams and `Free' Homes: The Oklahoma Territory, 1891-1894," Phylon 34:4 (December 1973):342-357.

Litwack, Leon. Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

_____________. North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790-1860. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

Long, Larry H. "Migration To, From, and Within Texas and Its Metropolitan Areas for Selected Periods of Time Between 1930 and 1960." M.A. Thesis, University of Texas, 1968.

Lotchin, Roger W. San Francisco, 1846-1856: From Hamlet to City. New York: Oxford University Prss, 1974.

Luckingham, Bradford. Minorities in Phoenix: A Profile of Mexican American Chinese American, and African American Communities, 1860-1992. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1994.

Lundy, Benjamin. The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, Including His Journeys to Texas and Mexico. Philadelphia: William D. Parrish, 1847.

Lyles, Lionel Dean. "An Historical-Urban Geographical Analysis of Black Neighborhood Development in Denver, 1860-1970." PhD dissertation, University of Colorado, 1977.

MacColl, E. Kimbark. The Growth of a City: Power and Politics in Portland, Oregon 1915 to 1950. Portland: The Georgian Press, 1980.

Mason, Kenneth. African Americans and Race Relations in San Antonio, Texas, 1867-1937. New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1998.

Mayer, Vincent Jr., "The Black on New Spain's Northern Frontier: San Jose de Parral, 1631 to 1641," Occasional Papers of the Center of Southwest Studies. Paper No. 2, November 1974:1-33.

McBroome, Delores Nason. Parallel Communities: African-Americans in California's East Bay, 1850-1963. New York: Garland Publishing Company, 1993.

McDonald, Dedra S. "Slavery and Freedom in the Southwest: African Descendants in Spanish Colonial New Mexico." Unpublished paper in the author's possession, 1995.

McElderry, Stuart. "Building a West Coast Ghetto: African American Housing in Portland, 1910-1960," Pacific Northwest Quarterly 92:3(Summer 2001):137-148.

McLoughlin, William G. After the Trail of Tears: The Cherokees' Struggle for Sovereignty, 1839-1880. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.

____________________. "Red Indians, Black Slavery and White Racism: America's Slaveholding Indians," American Quarterly. 26:4(October 1974):367-385.

McLagan, Elizabeth. A Peculiar Paradise: A History of Blacks in Oregon, 1788-1940. Portland: The Georgian Press, 1980.

McMillen, Christian. "Border State Terror and the Genesis of the African American Community in Deer Lodge and Chouteau Counties, Montana, 1870-1890," The Journal of Negro History 79:2 (Spring 1994):212-214.

McMurry, Linda O. George Washington Carver: Scientist & Symbol. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

McWilliams, Carey. "Los Angeles: An Emerging Pattern," Common Ground 9:1 (Spring 1949):3-10.

Mellinger, Philip. "Discrimination and Statehood in Oklahoma," Chronicles of Oklahoma 49:3 (Autumn 1971):340-378.

Micheaux, Oscar. The Conquest: The Story of a Negro Pioneer. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1994.

Mihelich, Dennis. "The Formation of the Lincoln Urban League," Nebraska History 68:2 (Summer 1987):63-73.

________________. "The Lincoln Urban League: The Travail of Depression and War," Nebraska History 70:4 (Winter 1989):303-316.

________________. "World War II and the Transformation of the Omaha Urban League," Nebraska History 60:3 (Fall 1979):401-423.

Miller, Loren. The Petitioners: The Story of the Supreme Court of the United States and the Negro. New York: Pantheon Books, 1966.

Miller, Susan A. "Wild Cat and the Origins of the Seminole Migration to Mexico." M.A. Thesis, University of Oklahoma, 1988.

Milner, Clyde A. II, ed. A New Significance: Re-Envisioning the History of the American West. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Minto, John. "Reminiscences of Experiences on the Oregon Trail in 1844," Oregon Historical Quartely 2:3 (September 1901):209-254.

Minutes and Proceedings of the First Annual Convention of the People of Color. Philadelphia: Published by the Convention, 1831.

Minutes and Proceedings of the Third Annual Convention For the Improvement of the Free People of Color in the United States. New York: Published by Order of the Convention, 1833 in Howard Holman Bell, ed. Minutes of the Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions, 1830-1864. New York: Arno Press and the New York Times, 1969.

Minutes of the National Convention of Colored Citizens. New York: Piercy & Reed, Printers, 1843.

Miranda, Gloria E. "Racial and Cultural Dimensions of Gente de Razon Status in Spanish and Mexican California." Southern California Quarterly. 70:3 (Fall 1988):265-278.

Montesano, Philip M. "San Francisco Black Churches in the Early 1860s: Political Pressure Group," California Historical Quarterly 52:2 (Summer, 1973):145-152.

Moore, Shirley Ann. To Place Our Deeds: The African American Community in Richmond, California, 1910-1963. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Morey, Captain Lewis S. "The Cavalry Fight at Carrizal," in Carroll, John, M. ed., The Black Military Experience in the West. New York: Liveright, 1971.

Morgan, Lael. "Writing Minorities Out of History: Black Builders of the Alcan Highway," Alaska History 7:2 (Fall 1992):1-13.

Morner, Magnus. Race Mixture in Latin America. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1967.

Mukenge, Ida Rousseau. The Black Church in Urban America: A Case Study in Political Economy. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, 1983.

Mulroy, Kevin. Freedom on the Border: The Seminole Maroons in Florida, the Indian Territory, Coahuila, and Texas. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1993.

Mumford, Esther Hall. Seven Stars and Orion: Reflections of the Past. Seattle: Ananse Press, 1986.

Murphy, Larry George. "Equality Before the Law: The Struggle of Nineteenth Century Black Californians for Social and Political Justice," PhD. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1973.

Nash, Gerald D. The American West Transformed: The Impact of the Second World War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Nash, Horace D. "Blacks on the Border: Columbus, New Mexico, 1916-1922," (M.A. Thesis: New Mexico State University, 1988).

Nebraska Writers' Project (Works Progress Administration), The Negroes of Nebraska. Lincoln: Woodruff Printing Company, 1940.

Neilson, John C. "Indian Masters, Black Slaves: An Oral History of the Civil War in Indian Territory," Panhandle-Plains Historical Review 65, (1992).

Nimmons, Robert Kim. "Arizona's Forgotten Past: The Negro in Arizona, 1539-1965," MA Thesis, Northern Arizona University, 1971.

Norris, Melvin Edward Jr., "Dearfield, Colorado--The Evolution of a Rural Black Settlement: An Historical Geography of Black Colonization on the Great Plains," (PhD. Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder, 1980.

O'Brien, Claire. "'With One Mighty Pull': Interracial Town Boosting in Nicodemus, Kansas," Great Plains Quarterly 16:2 (Spring 1996):117-130.

Oliver, Mamie O. Idaho Ebony: The Afro-American Presence in Idaho State History. Boise: Idaho State Historical Society, 1990.

Olmsted, Frederick Law. A Journey Through Texas. New York: Mason Brothers, 1859.

Painter, Nell Irvin. Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas After Reconstruction. Topeka: University Press of Kansas, 1986.

Palmer, Colin, Slaves of the White God: Blacks in Mexico, 1570-1650. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.

Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1979.

Pierson, George W. The Moving American. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973.

Pilton, James W. "Negro Settlement in British Columbia, 1858-1871" M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1951.

Pitre, Merline. Through Many Dangers, Toils and Snares: The Black Leadership of Texas, 1868-1900. Austin: Eakin Press, 1985.

Plummer, Mark A. Frontier Governor: Samuel J. Crawford of Kansas. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1971.

Plummer, Nellie Arnold. Out of the Depths; or, The Triumph of the Cross. Hyattsville, Maryland: Privately Printed, 1927.

PorPorter, Kenneth W. The Negro on the American Frontier. New York: The New York Times and Arno Press, 1969.

Poyo, Gerald E. and Hinojosa, Gilberto M., eds., Tejano Origins in Eighteenth-Century San Antonio. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1991.

Proceedings of the California State Convention of Colored Citizens. San Francisco, Office of the Elevator, 1865.

Proceedings of the First State Convention of the Colored Citizens of the State of California. Sacramento: Democratic State Journal Printer, 1855.

Proceedings of the Second Annual Convention of the Colored Citizens of the State of California. San Francisco: J.H. Udell and W. Handall, Printers, 1856.

Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. Vol. I New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Rampp, Lary C. and Rampp, Donald L. The Civil War in the Indian Territory. Austin: Presidial Press, 1975.

Rawick, George P. ed., The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography Volume 4, The Texas Narratives. Parts 1 and 2. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Company, 1972.

________________. The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography. Supplement, series 1, vol. 2, Arkansas, Colorado, Minnesota, Missouri and Oregon and Washington Narratives. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Company, 1977.

________________. The American Slave, Supplement, Series 1, vol. 12, The Oklahoma Narratives. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979.

Rawley, James A. Race and Politics: "Bleeding Kansas" And the Coming of the Civil War. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1969.

Ray, MaryEllen Bell. The City of Watts, California: 1907 to 1926. Los Angeles: Rising Publishing, 1985.

Record, Wilson. "Willie Stokes at the Golden Gate." Crisis 56:6 (June 1949:175-179.

Reddick, L.D. "The New Race Relations Frontier," The Journal of Educational Sociology, 19:3 (November, 1945):129-145.

Rice, Marc. "Frompin' in The Great Plains: Listening and Dancing to the Jazz Orchestras of Alphonso Trent, 1925-44," Great Plains Quarterly 16:2 (Spring 1996):107-115.

Richard, K. Keith. "Unwelcome Settlers: Black and Mulatto Oregon Pioneers," (Part I) Oregon Historical Quarterly 84:1(Spring 1983):35-36.

Richardson, James. Willie Brown: A Biography. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Richardson, Larry S. "Civil Rights in Seattle: A Rhetorical Analysis of a Social Movement." PhD. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1975.

Riley, Caroll L. "Blacks in the Early Southwest," Ethnohistory 19:3 (Summer 1972):252-257.

Riley, Glenda. "American Daughters: Black Women in the West." Montana: The Magazine of Western History 38:2 (Spring 1988):14-27.

Rios-Bustamante, Antonio. "Los Angeles, Pueblo and Region, 1781-1850: Continuity and Adaptation on the North Mexican Periphery." PhD dissertation, UCLA 1985.

Ripley, C. Peter. The Black Abolitionist Papers. Volume IV, The United States, 1847-1858. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Roberson, Jere W. "Edward P. McCabe and the Langston Experiment," Chronicles of Oklahoma 51:3 (Fall 1973):343-355.

Rout, Leslie B. Jr. The African Experience in Spanish America: 1502 to the Present Day London: Cambridge University Press, 1977.

Rusco, Elmer. "Good Time Coming?" Black Nevadans in the Nineteenth Century. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1975.

Russell, Beverly. "World War II Boomtown: Hastings and the Naval Ammunition Depot," Nebraska History 76:2&3 (Summer/Fall 1995):75-83.

Russell, Ross. Jazz Style in Kansas City and the Southwest. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1971.

Rydall, E. H. "California for Colored Folk," The Colored American Magazine 12:5 (May 1907):386-388.

Sandoval, Sally Jane. "Ghetto Growing Pains: The Impact of Negro Migration on the City of Los Angeles, 1940-1960." M.A. Thesis, California State University, Fullerton, 1974.

Sapper, Gary. "Black Culture in Urban Texas: A Lone Star Renaissance," Red River Valley Historical Review 6:2 (Spring 1981):56-77.

Savage, W. Sherman, Blacks in the West. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976.

Schick, Kathe. "The Lawrence Black Community, 1860-1866," unpublished manuscript, Watkins Community Museum, Lawrence, Kansas, n.d.

Schoen, Harold. "The Free Negro in the Republic of Texas: Legal Status," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 40:3 (January 1937):169-199.

______________. "The Free Negro in the Republic of Texas: Origin of the Free Negro in the Republic." Southwestern Historical Quarterly 39:4 (April 1936): 298-308.

______________, "The Free Negro in the Republic of Texas: The Free Negro and the Texas Revolution," Southwestern Historical Quarterly 40:1 (July 1936):26-34.

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