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The Second Great Migration

Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Random House, 1969.

Baldwin, James. Go Tell It on the Mountain. New York: Knopf, 1953.

____________. Notes of a Native Son. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1955.

____________. Nobody Knows My Name: More Notes of a Native Son. New York: Dial Press, 1961.

Bontemps, Arna. They Seek a City. New York: Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., 1945.

Brooks, Sara. You May Plow Here: The Narrative of Sara Brooks. Ed. Thordis Simonsen. New York: Norton, 1986.

Brown, Claude. Manchild in the Promised Land. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1965.

Chafe, William H., et al. Remembering Jim Crow: African Americans Tell About Life in the Segregated South. New York: The New Press, 2001.

Denby, Charles. Indignant Heart: A Black Worker's Journal. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1978.

Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Modern Library, 1952.

Himes, Chester. If He Hollers, Let Him Go. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc., 1945.

____________. The Quality of Hurt: The Autobiography of Chester Himes. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1972.

Honey, Maureen, ed. Bitter Fruit: African American Women in World War II. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1999.

Murray, Pauli. Proud Shoes. New York: Harper, 1956.

Painter, Nell Irvin. The Narrative of Hosea Hudson: His Life as a Negro Communist in the South. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Petry, Ann. The Street. New York: World Pub. Co., 1947.

Strickland, Arvarh E. "Remembering Hattiesburg: Growing Up Black in Wartime Mississippi." In Remaking Dixie: The Impact of World War II on the American South. Ed. Neil R. McMillen. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1997.

Tucker, Susan. Telling Memories Among Southern Women: Domestic Workers and Their Employers in the Segregated South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1988.

Wilson, August. [Play series].

Wright, Richard. Lawd Today. New York: Walker and Co., [1963].

Aratame, Natsumi, and Joachim Singelmann. "Migration and Race in the Southern United States." Research in Rural Sociology and Development 7 (1998): 113-30.

Beale, Calvin. "Rural Urban Migration of Blacks: Past and Present and Future." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 53 (1971): 302-7.

Bobo, Benjamin F. Black Internal Migration: U.S. and Ghana, a Comparative Study. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974.

Bowles, Gladys Kleinwort. Net Migration of the Population, 1950-60: By Age, Sex, and Color. Washington, D.C.: Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1965.

____________. Net Migration of the Population, 1960-70: By Age, Sex, and Color. Washington, D.C.: Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 1975.

Coles, Robert. The South Goes North. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co., 1969.

Cromartie, John B., and Carol B. Stack. "Reinterpretation of Black Return and Nonreturn Migration to the South, 1975-1980." The Geographical Review 79 (1989): 297-310.

Davis, George A., and Fred O. Donaldson. Blacks in the United States: A Geographic Perspective. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1975.

Dennis, Sam Joseph. African-American Exodus and White Migration, 1950-1970. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1989.

Farley, Reynolds, and Walter R. Allen. The Color Line and the Quality of Life in America. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1987.

Fligstein, Neil. Going North: Migration of Blacks and Whites from the South, 1900-1950. New York: Academic Press, 1981.

Frey, William H. "Black Migration to the South Reaches Record Highs in the 1990s." Population Today 26, no. 2 (1998): 1-3.

Fuguitt, Glenn V., and John A. Fulton. "The Shifting Patterns of Black Migration from and into the Nonmetropolitan South, 1965-95." In Rural Development and Research Report. Madison, Wisc.: Economic Research Service, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, 2001.

Goodwin, E. Marvin. Black Migration in America from 1915 to 1960: An Uneasy Exodus. Lewiston, N.Y.: E. Mellon Press, 1990.

Harrison, Alferdteen, ed. Black Exodus: The Great Migration from the American South. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1991.

Johnson, Daniel M., and Rex R. Campbell. Black Migration in America: A Social Demographic History. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1981.

Jones, Marcus E. Black Migration in the United States with Emphasis on Selected Central Cities. Saratoga, Calif.: Century Twenty-One Pub., 1980.

Lieberson, Stanley. "A Reconsideration of the Income Differences Found Between Migrants and Northern-born Blacks." American Journal of Sociology (January 1978).

____________. and Christy A. Wilkinson. "A Comparison Between Northern and Southern Blacks Residing in the North." Demography (May 1976).

Long, Larry H. "Poverty Status and Receipt of Welfare Among Migrants and Nonmigrants in Large Cities." American Sociological Review (February 1974).

Masters, Stanley H. "Are Black Migrants from the South to Northern Cities Worse Off Than Blacks Already There?" The Journal of Human Resources (Fall 1972).

McHugh, Kevin E. "Black Migration Reversal in the United States." Geographical Review 77 (1987): 171-82.

Price, Daniel O. "Rural-Urban Migration and Poverty: A Synthesis of Research Findings, with a Look at the Literature." Washington, D.C.: Office of Economic Opportunity, 1971.

Adero, Malaika, ed. Up South: Stories, Studies, and Letters of This Century's Black Migrations. New York: The New Press, 1993.

Broussard, Albert S. "In Search of the Promised Land: African American Migration to San Francisco, 1900-1945." In Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California. Eds. Lawrence De Graaf, Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A. Contested Terrain: African American Women Migrate from the South to Cincinnati, Ohio, 1900-1950. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Crew, Spencer R. Field to Factory: Afro-American Migration, 1915-1940. Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, 1987.

Daniel, Pete. Breaking the Land: The Transformation of Cotton, Tobacco, and Rice Cultures Since 1880. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985.

____________. Lost Revolutions: The South in the 1950s. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.

Daniels, Douglas Henry. Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1980.

De Graaf, Lawrence, Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor, eds. Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

Ferguson, Karen. "The Politics of Exclusion: Wartime Industrialization, Civil Rights Mobilization, and Black Politics in Atlanta, 1942-1946." In The Second Wave: Southern Industrialization from the 1940s to the 1970s. Ed. Philip Scranton. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001.

Hirsch, Arnold R. Making the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

Jaynes, Gerald, and Robin M. Williams, Jr., eds. A Common Destiny: Blacks and American Society. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989.

Johnson, Marilynn S. The Second Gold Rush: Oakland and the East Bay in World War II. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Jones, Jacqueline. The Dispossessed: America's Underclasses from the Civil War to the Present. New York: Basic Books, 1992.

Lawson, Steven F. Black Ballots: Voting Rights in the South, 1944 -1969. New York: Columbia University Press, 1976.

Lemann, Nicholas. The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Vintage Books, 1992.

Lemke-Santangelo, Gretchen. Abiding Courage: African American Migrant Women and the East Bay Community. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

____________. "Deindustrialization, Urban Poverty, and African American Community Mobilization in Oakland, 1945 through the 1990s." In Seeking El Dorado: African Americans in California. Eds. Lawrence De Graaf, Kevin Mulroy, and Quintard Taylor. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2001.

Lewis, Earl. In Their Own Interests: Race, Class, and Power in Twentieth-century Norfolk, Virginia. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

McGreevy, John T. Parish Boundaries: The Catholic Encounter with Race in the Twentieth-century Urban North. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Miller, Randall M., and George E. Pozzetta, ed. Shades of the Sunbelt: Essays on Ethnicity, Race, and the Urban South. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Moore, Shirley Ann Wilson. To Place Our Deed: The African American Community in Richmond, California, 1910-1963. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.

Nash, Gerald D. The American West Transformed: The Impact of the Second World War. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

____________. World War II and the West: Reshaping the Economy. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.

Phillips, Kimberley L. AlabamaNorth: African-American Migrants, Community, and Working-class Activism in Cleveland, 1915-45. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999.

Savage, Barbara Dianne. Broadcasting Freedom: The Politics of Race, 1938-1948. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.

Sugrue, Thomas J. The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996.

Thompson, Heather Ann. Whose Detroit?: Politics, Labor, and Race in a Modern American City. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001.

Trotter, Joe William. The Great Migration in Historical Perspective: New Dimensions of Race, Class, and Gender. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991.

Woodruff, Nan Elizabeth. "Pick or Fight: The Emergency Farm Labor Program in the Arkansas and Mississippi Deltas During World War II." Agricultural History 64 (Spring 1990) 74 - 85.

____________. "Mississippi Delta Planters and Debates over Mechanization, Labor, and Civil Rights in the 1940s." Journal of Southern History 60 (May 1994): 263-84.

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